After the war, the company was confiscated and nationalised by the Soviet administration. Topf & Söhne, hoping to capitalise on its good reputation prior to World War II. Les vestiges des crématoires acquirent rapidement la signification symbolique de monuments funéraires et de lieux de mémoire. Elle était clairement conçue pour le long terme et susceptible de se développer, et on s'en rendait bien compte chez Topf & Fils. [5], The site of the former factory is now a holocaust memorial site and a museum. Grâce à des contrats lucratifs pour un programme de construction d'entrepôts pour l'armée, ils purent consolider leur entreprise qui avait connu des revers à la suite de la crise économique mondiale. Der DFB zeichnet seit 2005 Vereine, Institutionen und Einzelpersonen aus, die sich für Demokratie und Menschenwürde sowie gegen Antisemitismus, Rassismus und jede Form der Diskriminierung einsetzen. Cerca e confronta hotel vicino a J.A. J.A. [4], He had four sons: Gustav (1853–1893); Albert (1857–1896); Max Julius Ernst, known as Julius (1859–1914) and Wilhelm Louis, known as Ludwig, (1863–1914). His brother Julius died of blood poisoning later the same year. [10], The first transport of Jews arrived at Auschwitz II on 15 February 1942. The occupation was known throughout Germany simply as "Das Besetzte Haus" (the occupied house). Der Deutscher Fußballbund zeichnet Bildungsprojekt vom Erinnerungsort Topf & Söhne und Spirit of Football e.V. [15] Initially, the process of gassing prisoners and then letting fresh air into the gas chambers lasted several hours, but after the exhaust fans were installed this was reduced to about an hour, thus reducing the turn around time. Leurs projets dépassaient de loin les exigences de la SS. This was a four-storey oven designed for Auschwitz II. Prüfer and Sander, who disliked each other and competed with one another, disagreed about how well the device would work in practice. Auf welche Punkte Sie vor dem Kauf Ihres Induktions topf auf normalen herd achten sollten! J.A. "Topf & Söhne", wie die Firma nach dem Tod des Gründers hieß, setzte seit 1914 auch auf einen neuen Trend - die Einäscherung. On 16 April 2009 about 30 remaining squatters who occupied part of the Topf & Söhne site from 2001 to 2009 were evicted by the police. He returned Erfurt to do two six-month internships, one in a bank and another in a malting company. Et pourtant, leur entreprise a équipé les camps de concentration et d'extermination de fours crématoires et … Ernst Wolfgang Topf passa à l'Ouest et tenta de créer une société de fours crématoires et d'incinérateurs à déchets. The two older brothers also joined the company in the late 1880s, but they both died by the mid-1890s; Gustav, aged 40 and Albert, aged 39. [9] An additional five triple-muffle ovens were installed at Auschwitz II by mid-March 1943. In addition, deductions were made for food and accommodation, and other costs. The firm's senior managers already had a lot of independence and operations continued without any major upheaval. [3], In addition to Auschwitz and Auschwitz II–Birkenau, Topf & Söhne also built crematoria ovens for Buchenwald, Dachau, Mauthausen-Gusen, Mogilev ghetto, and the Gross-Rosen concentration camp. It was made a subsidiary of VVB NAGEMA, a group of East German state-owned engineering companies. Il était l'un des quatre ingénieurs qui furent arrêtés et condamnés par les fonctionnaires soviétiques en 1946. A fifth son died in childhood. Topf & Söhne – Die Ofenbauer von Auschwitz“ von Annegret Schüle (Wallstein-Verlag Göttingen. Topf & Kopf Raucherbedarf GmbH A-2604 Theresienfeld, Flugfeldstrasse 3/2 Tel:+43 2622 71396 Cependant les relations avec la SS étaient houleuses. [12][6], It was calculated that all four of Auschwitz II's crematoria had the capacity to cremate a total of 8000 bodies per day, although the actual numbers were usually lower. aus! Topf & Söhne) was an engineering company, founded in 1878 in Erfurt, Germany by Johannes Andreas Topf (1816–1891). Même si ces fours particuliers ne représentaient qu'une petite activité annexe pour la société, celle-ci parvint rapidement à conquérir une place de leader sur le marché des fours crématoires en Allemagne. In 1949 the Soviet Occupied Zone became the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). [26][27], Squatters moved onto part of the site of the former factory on 12 April 2001 and set up an independent culture centre known as Das Besetzte Haus (the occupied house). wurzelnackt im Topf. Erarbeitung der Grundlagen und Dokumentation der Geschichte der Firma J.A. C'est dans les années 1930 que Ludwig et Ernst Wolfgang Topf commencèrent à travailler dans l'entreprise créée par leur grand-père. Heating, brewing & incineration equipment, silos, chimneys. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 22 juillet 2020 à 16:11. Prüfer died in October 1952 of a stroke while in prison. [16], From 1941 until the end of the war at least 620 people were engaged as forced labour (German:Zwangsarbeiter). From 1942 until spring 1944 about 1000 people per day were transported to Auschwitz, although not all of them were killed. In the summer of 1944, almost 440,000 Hungarian Jews were transported to the camp and during this period up to 9,000 bodies per day, and sometimes as many as 10,000 per day, were cremated in the ovens, as well as in outdoor burning pits. Assmann, Aleida; Hidderman, Frank (eds)(2002) Firma Topf & Söhne – Hersteller der Öfen für Auschwitz: Ein Fabrikgelände als Erinnerungsort? It was privatised in 1993 after German reunification and it went bankrupt in 1996. Cet article est copié avec permission du catalogue de l'exposition de Malignes, A. Topf und Söhne — Das Unternehmen J. [1], In March 1948 the Spruchkammer in Wiesbaden, where Topf had moved to, took over his files. Before crematoria II, III and IV at Auschwitz II were officially put into operation, on 5 March 1943, in the presence of high-ranking SS officers from Berlin, camp authorities and Topf & Söhne staff, a test of crematorium II was held to measure the speed at which bodies could be disposed of. A. Topf und Söhne war ein Industriebetrieb in Erfurt. [4], The company began manufacturing incinerators for burning municipal waste and, from 1914, crematoria for local authorities, due to the increasing acceptability of cremation as a means of body disposal. The site and its history, Analyzing and documenting the history of the J. [8] Der Beitritt zur NSDAP sowie die anfängliche Geschäftsbeziehung zur SS können teilweise mit der Angst der Gebrüder um den … [1], After leaving school, Ludwig studied machine engineering at the Technische Hochschule Hannover, now the University of Hannover. La SS fut désignée comme seule coupable. A. Topf & Söhne company, Auschwitz-Birkenau Crematoria: Civilian Ovens Comparison (2016), Topf & Sons as Partners of the SS. Malgré de nombreux efforts pour étouffer toute l'affaire, les complicités passives et actives ont laissé des traces. Ceux-ci développaient les machines spéciales Topf qui étaient ensuite produites dans les ateliers de l'entreprise. [26], The factory workshops no longer remain, but a museum and education centre opened in the former administration building on 27 January 2011, Holocaust Memorial Day. The Patent Application, Concentration camps shown as film evidence during the Nuremberg Trials, German Minister Says Heirs of Crematorium Maker Won’t Be Compensated, Regional events in Germany keep memories of the Holocaust alive, Hochschulfernsehen "UNIcut" feiert Jubiläum, Topf & Sons Remembrance Site official website,, Articles with German-language sources (de), Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Die "Besetzer_innen" wollen mit der Aktion auf den Abriss der Industriebrache Topf und Söhne sowie der drohenden Räumung des Besetzten Hauses auf einem Teil des ehemaligen Firmengeländes aufmerksam machen. Elsa Topf was also estranged from her daughter, whose marriage she disapproved of. He had a reputation as a womaniser and was living with his secretary, 19 years his junior, at the time of his death. Bodies were often pushed in four, five or even six at once. [12][14], On 13 March 1943 the engineer Karl Schultze and Heinrich Messing witnessed a test sample of 1,492 Jews from Kraków Ghetto being killed in the gas chambers at Auschwitz II and then cremated. Ernst also studied at Hannover, but took business studies. In October 1941, the SS placed an order for five three-muffle ovens for the new Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp (Auschwitz II), where it was initially estimated that over 1000 people per day would die. [10] A Topf transportable, double-muffle oven was delivered in winter 1939/40, and two, three-muffle stationary ovens were ordered. Topf & Söhne ist ein authentischer Ort der Mittäterschaft der Industrie am Holocaust. Damit kommt Topf & Söhne eine Schlüsselrolle bei der Umsetzung des Völkermords an den europäischen Juden und den Sinti und Roma zu. Observations, innovations and patent applications, Stiftung Gedenkstätten Buchenwald und Mittelbau-Dora (2005), Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team (2007), Erinnerungsort Topf & Söhne, 12 July 2017. Topf und Söhne) est une société allemande spécialisée en installations de chauffage qui fut créée en 1878 à Erfurt. [8], The influence of Nazi staff within the firm also grew. The brothers, like their father, did have many good relationships with Jewish friends, neighbours and business contacts. [13][14], In early 1943, the Topf & Söhne fitter Heinrich Messing installed exhaust fans in the Auschwitz II crematoria and also in the gas chambers. [5], After falling into decay for many years, the former Topf & Söhne site was given historic monument protection status by the state of Thuringia in 2003. These were Kurt Prüfer, Fritz Sander (1876–1946), Karl Schultze (1900-died after 1955) and Gustav Braun (1889–1958). für den Inhalt verantwortlich und Betreiber der Website. The occupation was one of the most well known actions of left-radicals of that period in Germany. [3], As Ernst Topf was now in western Germany and his brother Ludwig was dead, Topf & Söhne was declared an "ownerless company" and in 1946 it was taken over by the state and renamed "Topfwerke Erfurt VEB". He was later involved with researching the history of the firm and in setting up the memorial site and museum. J.A. En même temps, ils confirment l'importance qu'a eue Topf & Fils pour le perfectionnement de l'extermination industrialisée. II. Later, the company diversified into silos, chimneys, incinerators for burning municipal waste, and crematoria.During World War I it made weapons shells, limbers (carts … Si vous disposez d'ouvrages ou d'articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l'article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références ». [4], Ludwig and Else Topf had three children: Johanna, known as Hanna, (1902–? [3][7], Ludwig Topf was wealthy and successful, but committed suicide in February 1914, aged 51, due to the stress of running the business. At least 620 foreigners were forced to work for the company. A 'muffle' is the incineration chamber where the body is put. When their father died, the two sons, aged 10 and 9, were sent away to a boarding school. En 1941, Ludwig Topf parvint à se soustraire à son service militaire en affirmant qu'il était indispensable pour le projet Auschwitz. He owned his own brewery and had also worked in the fuel technology industry. [1], In December 1939, a patent application was made for Prüfer's double-muffle transportable cremation unit, although it was not approved, possibly because of the legal problem of ash mixing. (20 cm, 16 cm, 28 cm), Edelstahl/schwarz. [17] To try to conceal what had been going on, the SS blew up the crematoria and gas chambers before the Soviet troops arrived. Topf & Söhne – Die Ofenbauer von Auschwitz“ der Stiftung Gedenkstätten Buchenwald und Mittelbau-Dora in Verbindung mit dem Jüdischen Museum Berlin und dem Staatlichen Museum Auschwitz. Man kann diese Rose wirklich weiterempfehlen. Und so wird es wohl am Hirnzigenberg noch eine ganze Weile so ruhig bleiben. Wir als Seitenbetreiber haben uns dem Ziel angenommen, Alternativen unterschiedlichster Art ausführlichst zu vergleichen, sodass Kunden unmittelbar den Induktions topf auf normalen herd sich aneignen können, den Sie als Leser möchten. They had two children. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. [4][23], Fritz Sander, Prüfer's manager, who was 70, died of heart failure on 26 March 1946 in Berlin, three weeks after his arrest and after four interrogation sessions. He was released three weeks later and returned to work. Dennoch markiert das gerade erschienene Buch „Industrie und Holocaust. Unsere Redakteure haben uns dem Ziel angenommen, Produktpaletten unterschiedlichster Variante auf Herz und Nieren zu überprüfen, sodass Interessierte unmittelbar den Kaffee campingkocher gönnen können, den Sie als Kunde kaufen wollen. Sans sollicitation, de leur propre initiative, les ingénieurs de la société imaginèrent des installations encore plus efficaces pour l'extermination d'un nombre de gens toujours croissant. This bland valediction (complimentary close) was often used at the end of letters Topf & Söhne sent to the SS, in which details of orders for concentration camp ovens were discussed.[30]. Look up the English to German translation of Topf in the PONS online dictionary. He established the new company to sell a system for heating brewing coppers which he had invented and patented. Anna Anger, Fotos: AK Topf & Fils (J.A. In Heil- und Pflegeanstalten wurden 1940/1941 in der "Aktion T4" Menschen mit Behinderungen und psychischen Erkrankungen systematisch ermordet. En effet, les fours étaient peu fiables et n'étaient garantis que deux mois. This was illegal, but all subsequent multi-muffle ovens built for the concentration camps were designed in the same way. From April 1938 to March 1939, 90% of all cremations at Weimar came from Buchenwald. In den Krematorien für den Völkermord an den europäischen Juden und Sinti und Roma errichteten Ingenieure von J. Topf & Söhne was producing heating, brewing and malting systems and working collaboratively with other firms to sell products all over Germany and beyond. The majority of the French, Soviets and Italians were prisoners of war. He was held in custody and interrogated for two or three weeks and then let go. [1], On 26 October 1942, the engineer Fritz Sander, Prüfer's manager, applied for a patent for what he called a "continuous operation corpse incineration oven for mass use". [4] [30] Hallo und Herzlich Willkommen hier. [11], In addition to making ovens for Buchenwald, Auschwitz and Dachau, Topf & Söhne also supplied a transportable double-muffle oven and a stationary double-muffle oven for Mauthausen-Gusen, a triple-muffle oven at Groß-Rosen and a four-muffle oven at Mogilev ghetto. In 1952 it was renamed "NAGEMA VEB Maschinenfabrik "Nikos Belojannis", after a Greek communist who had been an inmate in a German concentration camp in Greece. 4,1 von 5 Sternen 16. Topf died in 1979. Au début du XX e siècle, elle était déjà l'un des plus grands fabricants mondiaux d'installations de chaufferies industrielles pour brasseries. En pratique : Quelles sources sont attendues ? Topf & Söhne – Die Ofenbauer von Auschwitz, Göttingen 2010. There was further bad publicity when the book Macht ohne Moral ('Power without Morals') was published in 1957. In the early 1930s, due to the economic crisis of the Weimar Republic, the company lost business to such an extent that by Spring 1933 it was in danger of bankruptcy. About 8.5 million Germans had been members of the party and the Spruchkammer were set up to investigate them. Des témoignages oculaires de membres du 'Sonderkommando', qui étaient forcés de travailler dans les crématoires, attestent du déroulement des massacres et de la destruction des cadavres. Die Firma Topf & Söhne lieferte die benötigten Verbrennungsöfen und trat damit seinen Dienst als Handlanger des Holocaust an. Later, the company diversified into silos, chimneys, incinerators for burning municipal waste, and crematoria. Oltre a una vasta selezione di hotel, resort, appartamenti e ostelli in tutto il mondo. Für den Fall einer Räumung des Besetzten Hauses auf dem ehemaligen Gelände von Topf & Söhne wollen zudem rund 200 Menschen eine Sitzblockade veranstalten. [1], It is now infamous as the largest of 12 companies that designed and built crematoria ovens for concentration and extermination camps during the Holocaust, planned and carried out by the Nazi regime from 1935 to 1945. It was never built. Puis elle emporte le "marché du siècle" consistant à équiper les crématoires II à V à Auschwitz-Birkenau[2]. The site of Buchenwald concentration camp can still be seen in the distance from the window where engineer Kurt Prüfer's desk stood. Unterstützt wird die Aktion von der Grünen Jugend, der DGB-Jugend, den Jusos, dem Jugendbüro RedRoXX, der Offenen Arbeit und anderen, wie eine Sprecherin mitteilte. "[23], Over the next two years, the other three men remained in custody and were interrogated in Germany and in Moscow, where, on 17 April 1948, they were sentenced to 25 years in a Russian labour camp. [4], On 1 March 1946 the firm was given a large contract for malting and brewing equipment by the reparations department of the Soviet military, however a few days later, four engineers of the firm were arrested. … Ansehen Meyerbeer, Karl; Späth, Pascal (eds) (2012), Besetztes Haus Erfurt in Aktion: Widerstand gegen Räumung, Die Räumung des Besetzten Hauses in Erfurt am 16.04.2009, Forced labour under German rule during World War II, The engineers of the "final solution". The company not only made crematoria ovens, it also made ventilation systems for the gas chambers at Auschwitz II–Birkenau. Topf & Fils (J.A. [1], Later, in December 1946, because of his membership of the Nazi party, the Fritzlar-Homberg Spruchkammer, a German civilian denazification court, started investigating Ernst Topf. The company's crematoria department was closed in 1955 and in 1957 it stopped production of all forms of combustion machinery and was renamed VEB Erfurter Mälzerei- und Speicherbau (VEB EMS), (Erfurt Oasthouse and Granary Construction). L'extermination d'êtres humains n'était pas un phénomène passager dans le national-socialisme. Assmann, Aleida; Hidderman, Frank (eds) (2002), This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 00:07. Das Familienunternehmen Topf & Söhne a) Die Geschichte des Unternehmens. Frankfurt/New York: Campus Verlag. Pour ce faire, il leur fallut observer les premiers massacres et incinérations dans les crématoires. In all, Topf built 25 crematoria ovens which had a total of 76 incineration chambers (called 'muffles') for concentration camps. Am 05.04.09 wurde die ehemalige Villa der Familie Topf in der Rubenstraße in Erfurt scheinbesetzt. The Zwangsarbeiter had to work 56 hours per week in comparison with the 42 hours worked by German employees, although they were paid 25–30% less. J. Film from Buchenwald and other concentration camps was used as evidence at the Nuremberg Trials. Topf committed suicide on 31 May 1945, by cyanide poisoning. It includes archival footage from the 1930s and 40s, and footage of the ruins of the Topf family villa in 2007 and the Erfurt factory site and administration building before it was restored as a memorial site. Hier das Programm bis einschließlich Sonntag: 10.4.2009. The brothers later became the owners and managers of the firm during the Nazi period. Those present observed the bodies being put in the ovens and burned. Schüle, Annegret: Industrie und Holocaust. [1][15] He is quoted as saying during the interrogations "I was a German engineer and key member of the Topf works and I saw it as my duty to apply my specialist knowledge in this way in order to help Germany win the war, just as an aircraft construction engineer builds airplanes in wartime, which are also connected with the destruction of human beings. That was the highest sentence that could be given without having a full trial. [3][6], When Johannes Topf founded the firm on 1 July 1878 he was already 62 years old. Quellen: Lehmann, Heidrun: Stadtverband der Kleingärtner besteht seit 20 Jahren, Thüringische Landeszeitung vom 18.05.2010. [28] The University of Erfurt's television channel, UNIcut,[31] made a short report about the occupation shortly before the eviction. The Spruchkammer had difficulties in getting evidence, partly due to a lack of co-operation between American officials and officials in Soviet occupied Erfurt. In the 1932 elections they became the second largest party; Hitler became chancellor in March 1933. [1], In 1951 Topf founded a new company, in Wiesbaden, to make crematoria and refuse incinerators. However, his business never did well. After graduating from Hannover, he spent a further five years at Leipzig, Berlin and Rostock universities, studying a wide range of subjects, including economics, law, and sociology. He maintained that the ovens they had delivered to the concentration camps were standard equipment, of the same type that they made for city crematoria for civilian use and claimed that if they had refused to work with the SS they would have been severely punished. Braun, also a qualified engineer, was the factory's production manager. Sans Topf, les SS n'auraient jamais pu mettre en place un tel systèmes d'élimination des humains[4]. En 1914, l'entreprise se lança sur un nouveau marché et se mit à construire des installations d'incinération pour les crématoires municipaux. Ils témoignent de ce que subissaient les gens à cet endroit. Au sein de leur entreprise, les frères Topf dépendaient de la longue expérience de leurs chefs de division et de leurs ingénieurs de l'époque. Originally, it made heating systems and brewing and malting equipment. [20], At Buchenwald, liberated on 11 April, the crematoria ovens remained intact. In order to improve the speed at which bodies burned, the muffles were internally joined, resulting in the ashes of individual bodies being mixed. (mz) Erinnerungsort Topf & Söhne, Sorbenweg 7, Erfurt, Di-So 10-18 Uhr Das Haus im Internet: Ausstellung: 31.10.2020 10:00 – 04.07.2021 18:00 Kategorie: Sonderausstellung, Geschichte, Gedenken, Topf und Söhne. A. Topf und Söhne mit Skyscanner-Hotels. Tefal Simpleo B815S4 Topf- und Pfannenset 4 tlg. Améliorez-le, discutez des points à améliorer ou précisez les sections à recycler en utilisant {{section à recycler}}. Encuentra millones de habitaciones en hoteles, resorts y hostales de todo el mundo. Topf's wife Erika, aged 52, died in April 1963. [1], At its peak Topf & Söhne was the largest company of its type in the world. During World War I it made weapons shells, limbers (carts for carrying artillery) and other military vehicles. Il existait aussi un système de doubles facturation qui permet de penser que Topf essayait de tirer profit de la SS par tous les moyens[4]. On les retrouve, partiellement cachées, dans les documents de l'exposition. It had already been agreed in the Yalta Conference, held in February 1945, that the area would come under Soviet control after the Germans had been defeated. A. Topf und Söhne med Skyscanner hotell. Das Unternehmen stellte der SS leistungsstarke Öfen für die Beseitigung der Leichen in den Konzentrationslagern zur Verfügung und zögerte nicht, technische Lösungen zur "Optimierung" des Mordens im Vernichtungslager Auschwitz-Birkenau zu liefern. The unusually high numbers looked suspicious, so the SS wanted their own on-site facilities, although it was illegal for crematoria to be outside of local authority control. Later, in Topf & Söhne's instructions on using the ovens, they advised adding bodies to the muffles at 20-minute intervals as the previous body burned down. Mais les gravats restés là témoignaient du génocide. A. Topf & Söhne die Verbrennungsöfen und die Lüftungstechnik für die Gaskammern. Und sie ist ein Teil von uns. Topf & Söhne) was an engineering company, founded in 1878 in Erfurt, Germany by Johannes Andreas Topf (1816–1891). However, the family made a further claim for financial compensation. [14], At the end of June 1945, Ernst Topf travelled to an insurance company in Stuttgart, then in the French occupied zone, to collect a 300,000 Reichmark life insurance payout that was due following his brother Ludwig's death. Comment ajouter mes sources ? Du business dans les camp de concentration : les complices passifs et actifs au sein de l'entreprise, Topf & Fils, partenaires de la SS : initiatives et avantages, Après la guerre : effacer les traces - se souvenir - nier,öhne&oldid=173159133, Massacre ou atrocité de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Article manquant de références depuis juillet 2012, Article manquant de références/Liste complète, Portail:Seconde Guerre mondiale/Articles liés, Portail:Époque contemporaine/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. April 2001 besetzten AntifaschistInnen einen Teil des ehemaligen Topf und Söhne Geländes in Erfurt. Der ehemalige Firmensitz von J.A. Wähle aus Millionen von Zimmern in Hotels, Resorts, Apartments und Hostels weltweit aus. They were then permitted to return and were appointed joint managers, with Ludwig as the technical manager, and Ernst as the business manager. By 1885 J.A. A. Topf & Söhne (gegründet 1878, bis zum Konkurs 1994 als EMS - Erfurter Mälzerei- und Speicherbau tätig) ist ein prominentes Beispiel für die Mittäterschaft der Industrie bei der Vernichtung der europäischen Juden. They ran social and cultural projects, and organised events and guided tours which drew attention to the history of Topf & Söhne during the Nazi period, which had been largely forgotten. Barracks that could accommodate 52 Zwangsarbeiter were built on the Topf & Söhne factory site. Nazi concentration camp crematoria and gas chamber ventilation. They were banned from the company site, due to a rift with their mother, who would not speak to them, and because of political problems. Originally, it made heating systems and brewing and malting equipment. [1], The muffles of the concentration camp ovens were smaller than those for civil crematoria, because no space for a coffin was needed, which saved both space and fuel.